First Aid & Survival Guide
|First Aid & Survival Guide|
(Any person relying upon the Survival Guide does so at his or her own risk.)
Please read the following pages before an emergency strikes.
Calling for Emergency Help
In an emergency, seconds can be the difference between life and death. When calling for emergency help, let the emergency person end the conversation. DO NOT HANG UP!
The following pages describe what to do until medical help arrives.
Call for Help -- Dial 9 - 9 1 1
- If the victim is NOt beathing: Phone 9-911 at once or get someone else to call for emergency help. Then begin Rescue Breathing.
- If the victim is in destress -- but breathing: Phone 9 -911 at once.
- What to say:
- Give the phone number and extension from which you are calling
- Give the address and directions (nearest cross street and department in building) to find the victim: 101 West Cochran St., Simi Valley (nearest cross street is Westhills Court) and the Department in building
- Describe the victim's condition
- Describe what happened, how many are injured, or what help is being given.
- Give your name.
- DO NOT HANG UP! Let the emergency person end the conversation. They may have questions to ask and/or special information to give you about what you should do until help arrives.
Breathing: Unconscious Person
Be careful approaching an unconscious person. He or she may be in contact with an electrical current. If that is the case, turn off the electricity before you touch the victim. There are many possible causes of unconsciousness, but the first thing you must check for is BREATHING.
- Try to wake the person. Tap or shak the victim's shoulder gently. Shout loudly: "Are you all right?"
- If there is no response, chck for signs of breathing. Have someone call 9-911 for emergency medical help.
- Be sure the victim is lying flat on his or her back
- If you have to, roll the victim over as a unit. To avoid possible neck injury, turn his or her head with the body as one unit.
- Loosen tight clothing around the neck and chest.
- Open the airway.
- If there are no signs of head or neck injury, place one hand on the victim's forehead and apply firm, backward pressure with the palm to help tilt the head back.
- Place the fingers of the other hand under the bony part of the lower jaw near the chin and lift to bring the chin forward, thus supporting the jaw and helping to tilt the head back.
- Place your ear close to the victim's mouth. Listen for breathing. Watch the chest and stomach for signs of breathing for at least 5 seconds.
- If you are unsure, assume they are not breathing.
- Give Rescue Breathing immediately (see below)
- If the victim vomits, turn the victim on his or her side and sweep the mouth clear of vomit using two of your fingers.
Rescue Breathing for Adults
1. Put your hand on the victim’s forehead. While holding the forehead back, gently pinch the nose shut with your fingers.
2. To open the airway, put your other hand under the victim’s jaw and lift the chin until it points straight up.
3. Take a deep breath. Open your mouth wide. Place it over the victim’s mouth. Blow air into the victim until you see the victim’s chest rise.
4. Remove your mouth from the victim’s. Turn your head to the side and watch the chest fall while listening for air escaping from the victim’s mouth. Give another breath.
5. If you hear air escaping and see the chest fall, Rescue Breathing is working. Continue until help arrives.
6. Check the victim’s pulse.
7. Repeat a single breath every five seconds. Wait for chest deflation after each breath.
8. If you don’t hear air escaping, the airway is blocked.
9. If the victim vomits, turn the victim on his or her side and sweep the mouth clear of vomit using two of your fingers.
The universal distress signal indicates an airway obstruction.
1. For a victim in distress who can speak, cough, or breathe, do NOT interfere. Coughing is the best way to remove an obstruction. If the choking continues without lessening, call 9-911 for help.
2. For a choking victim who cannot speak, cough, or breathe, have someone call 9-911 and take the following action:
For a Conscious Victim
a. Stand behind the victim. They can be standing or sitting.
b. While standing behind the victim, place the thumb side of your fist against the victim’s abdomen just above the navel and below the rib cage.
c. Grasp the fist with the other hand and give sharp inward and upward thrusts, until the object is expelled. Be careful not to exert pressure against the victim’s rib cage with your forearms.
d. Repeat procedure until the victim is no longer choking or becomes unconscious.
For an Unconscious Victim
a. Place the victim on the floor or ground and give Rescue Breathing. If the victim does not start breathing and it appears that your air is not going into the victim’s lungs, reposition airway and try giving two more breaths.
b. With the victim remaining on his or her back, try giving manual thrusts. To give the thrusts to adults, place one of your hands on top of the other with the heel of the bottom hand in the middle of the abdomen, slightly above the navel and below the rib cage. Press into the victim’s abdomen with a quick upward thrust. Repeat five times if needed. Do not press to either side. If a woman is pregnant, give chest thrusts only.
c. Clear the airway.
1. Hold the victim’s mouth open with one hand, using your thumb to depress the tongue.
2. Make a hook with pointer finger of your other hand, and in a gentle sweeping motion, reach into the victim’s throat and feel for a swallowed foreign object that may be blocking the air passage.
3. Attempt to give two breaths. If air doesn’t go into victim’s lungs repeat:
a. Five abdominal thrusts.
b. Probe in mouth.
c. Give two full breaths.
d. Repeat until successful or until medical help arrives. If air does go in to lungs, perform Rescue Breathing.
4. If object comes out and victim is not breathing, start Rescue Breathing immediately.
1. Do not touch a person who has been in contact with an electrical current until you are certain that the electricity is turned off.
2. If the victim is in contact with a wire or a downed power line, use a dry stick to move it away. If the ground is wet, do not approach. Call 9-911 for help.
3. If you can approach, check for breathing. If the victim’s breathing is weak or has stopped, open the airway. If after a few seconds the victim is still not breathing, immediately begin Rescue Breathing. (see above)
a. Severe squeezing pains, crushing pains, or heavy pressure in the chest.
b. Pain that radiates from the chest into either the arm, neck, or jaw.
c. Shortness of breath.
d. Sweating and weakness, nausea or vomiting.
e. Prolonged indigestion-type pain.
1. If the victim is experiencing any of these sensations - take no chances. Call for emergency help at once.
2. If the victim is not breathing: Give Rescue Breathing immediately. Get someone else to call for emergency help.
3. If you cannot detect a heartbeat, begin CPR.
The best way to control bleeding is with direct pressure over the site of the wound. Do not attempt to apply a tourniquet yourself. Always avoid skin contact with the victim’s blood. Use several layers of material, if necessary.
1. Apply firm, steady, direct pressure for 5 to 15 minutes. Most bleeding will stop within a few minutes.
2. If bleeding is from a foot, hand, leg, or arm, use gravity to help slow the flow of blood. If there are no broken bones, elevate the limb so that it is above the victim’s heart.
3. Severe nose bleeding can often be controlled by applying direct pressure by pinching the nostrils with the fingers while sitting up. Apply pressure 10 minutes without interruption.
Bleeding: Head Injuries
If there is bleeding from an ear, it can mean that there is a skull fracture.
1. Call for emergency help. Let a professional medical person attend the wound.
2. Always suspect a neck injury when there is a serious head injury. Keep the neck and head still.
3. Keep the airway open.
4. When stopping the bleeding, don’t press too hard. DO NOT attempt to stop bleeding from within the ear by direct pressure.
5. DO NOT give the victim any fluids, cigarettes, or other drugs. They may mask important symptoms.
a. Coughing or vomiting blood or passing blood in urine or stool.
b. Cold, clammy, pale skin; rapid, weak pulse; dizziness.
1. Get emergency medical help immediately.
2. Have the victim lie down with feet slightly elevated and relax. Stay calm and keep the victim warm.
1. Call for emergency help or get someone to call for emergency medical help immediately.
2. DO NOT move the victim unless the victim is in immediate danger of further injury.
3. DO NOT try to push the broken bone back into place if it is sticking out of the skin.
4. DO NOT try to straighten out a fracture. Let a doctor or trained person do that. If you must move or transport the victim, immobilize or stabilize the fracture as best as possible.
5. Keep the victim warm, elevate the legs 6” to 12” and give no fluids or stimulants. Do not elevate the legs if you suspect an injury of the legs, neck, back, or head.
There is little you can do to stop a seizure. Let the seizure run its course.
1. Limbs may jerk violently.
2. Eyes may roll upward.
3. Breathing may become heavy with dribbling or frothing at the mouth.
4. Breathing may even stop temporarily in some cases.
5. The victim may bite his or her tongue so severely that it may bleed and cause an airway obstruction.
During the seizure:
a. Call for emergency medical help at once.
b. DO NOT attempt to force anything into the victim’s mouth. You may injure yourself and/or the victim.
c. Help the victim lie down and keep from falling and injuring him/herself.
d. DO NOT use force or attempt to restrain a seizure victim.
After the seizure:
a. Check to see if the victim is breathing. If not, give Rescue Breathing at once.
b. Check to see if the victim is wearing a medical identification bracelet or necklace. It describes emergency medical requirements.
c. Get medical attention.
Locate and keep the suspected substance and container.
If the victim is conscious, call the Poison Control Center, 1-800-876-4766.
If The Victim is Unconscious
1. Call 9-911.
2. Check to see if victim is breathing. If not, tilt victim’s head back and perform Rescue Breathing. (see page 37)
If The Victim is Vomiting
Roll the victim over onto his/her side. This helps ensure the victim will not choke on what is brought up.
A drug overdose is a poisoning. Don’t take drunkenness lightly. Alcohol alone or in combination with certain other drugs can kill.
If The Victim is Unconscious
1. Call the Poison Control Center, 1-800-876-4766. Check the victim’s breathing and pulse. If breathing has stopped or is very weak, open the airway. If, after a few seconds, the victim is still not breathing, immediately begin Rescue Breathing. CAUTION: People under the influence of alcohol or drugs can become violent. Be careful.
2. While waiting for help:
a. Watch breathing.
b. Keep the victim warm with a blanket or coat.
c. DO NOT throw water in the victim’s face.
d. DO NOT give the victim liquor or a stimulant.
If The Victim is Unconscious
1. If unconscious, call 9-911.
2. If unconscious, roll the victim onto his or her side to keep their airway clear in case they vomit.
1. Fire Burns
a. For small burns: Cool the burn with running water to stop the burning process. If ice is used, make sure it is contained in a bag or cloth. Do not apply uncovered ice directly to the burn. Do not apply butter to the burn.
b. For large burns: Call 9-911, make sure the burning has stopped, and cover the victim with a dry, clean sheet.
2. Chemical Burns
a. Remove victim’s affected clothing.
b. Wash burned areas with cool water for at least 20 minutes.
c. Call 9-911 immediately.
For chemical burns of the eye: Flush eye with tepid water for 20-30 minutes.
During an Earthquake
1. If you are indoors, DUCK or drop down to the floor. Take COVER under a sturdy desk, table, or other furniture. HOLD on to it and be prepared to move with it. Hold this position until the ground stops shaking and it is safe to move. Stay clear of windows, fireplaces, and heavy furniture or appliances. Don’t rush outside. Falling glass or building parts may injure you. DO NOT try using the stairs or elevators while the building is shaking or while there is danger of being hit by falling glass or debris.
2. If you are outside, get into the OPEN, away from buildings and power lines.
3. If you are driving - STOP if it is safe - but stay inside. DO NOT stop on or under a bridge, overpass, or tunnel. Move your car as far out of the normal traffic pattern as possible. DO NOT stop under trees, light posts, electrical power lines, or signs.
4. If you are in a mountainous area, be alert for falling rock and other debris that could be loosened by the quake.
5. In a crowded public place, do NOT rush for the exits. Stay calm and encourage others to do so.
After an Earthquake
1. Check for injuries.
a. If a person is not breathing, open the airway. If after a few seconds the victim is still not breathing, immediately begin Rescue Breathing. (see page 32)
b. If a person is bleeding, put pressure over the wound. Use clean gauze or cloth, if available. Use the guidelines in this Survival Guide to help injured people until help is available.
c. DO NOT attempt to move seriously injured persons UNLESS they are in immediate danger of further injury.
d. Cover injured persons with blankets to keep them warm.
2. Safety check. Check for the following potential risks:
a. Fire or fire hazards.
b. Gas leaks. Shut off the main gas valve if you suspect or identify the odor of natural gas. Ask the gas company to check it and turn it back on.
c. Damaged electrical wiring. Shut off power at the control box if there is any damage to the wiring.
d. Downed or damaged utility lines. DO NOT touch downed power lines or objects of any kind touching them.
e. Immediately clean up any spilled medicines, drugs, or other potentially harmful materials such as bleach, lye, gasoline, or other petroleum products without endangering yourself.
f. Fallen items in closets and cupboards. Beware of items tumbling off shelves when you open the door.
g. Check that each telephone is on its receiver. Phones are that are off-hook tie up the telephone network.
h. Wear sturdy shoes and gloves to avoid injury from broken glass and debris.
i. If damage is extensive, wear a dust mask, wet handkerchief, or other cover for the nose and mouth.
3. Check your food and water supplies.
a. DO NOT eat or drink anything from open containers near shattered glass.
b. Use barbecues or camp stoves outdoors for emergency cooking.
c. If water is off, you can use supplies from water heaters, toilet tanks, melted ice cubes, etc.
DO NOT: Use lighters, candles, open-flame appliances, or smoke until you are sure there are no gas leaks.
DO NOT: Operate electrical switches or appliances, including telephones, if you suspect a gas leak. The appliance may create a spark that could ignite the leaking gas.
DO NOT: Use your telephone except for an emergency. You could tie up lines needed for emergency services. Turn on your portable radio for information and damage reports.
DO NOT: Go sightseeing afterwards, especially in beach and waterfront areas where seismic waves could strike.
Keep streets clear for emergency vehicles. Cooperate with public safety officials.
Be prepared for aftershocks. Most of these are smaller than the main quake, but some may be large enough to do additional damage.